The rise of massive red galaxies: The color-magnitude and color-stellar mass diagrams for z phot ≲ 2 from the multiwavelength survey by yale-chile

Edward N. Taylor, Marijn Franx, Pieter G Van Dokkum, Eric F. Bell, Gabriel B. Brammer, Gregory Rudnick, Stijn Wuyts, Eric Gawiser, Paulina Lira, C. Megan Urry, Hans Walter Rix

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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Abstract

We present the color-magnitude and color-stellar mass diagrams for galaxies with z phot ≲ 2, based on a K (AB) < 22 catalog of the × □° Extended Chandra Deep Field South from the MUltiwavelength Survey by Yale-Chile. Our main sample of 7840 galaxies contains 1297 M *>1011 M galaxies in the range 0.2 < z phot < 1.8. We show empirically that this catalog is approximately complete for M *>1011 M galaxies for z phot < 1.8. For this mass-limited sample, we show that the locus of the red sequence color-stellar mass relation evolves as Δ(u - r) (-0.44 ± 0.02)z phot for z phot ≲ 1.2. For z phot ≳ 1.3, however, we are no longer able to reliably distinguish red and blue subpopulations from the observed color distribution; we show that this would require much deeper near-infrared data. At 1.5 < z phot < 1.8, the comoving number density of M *>1011 M galaxies is 50% of the local value, with a red fraction of 33%. Making a parametric fit to the observed evolution, we find n tot(z) (1 + z phot)-0.520.12(0.20). We find stronger evolution in the red fraction: f red(z) (1 + z phot) -1.170.18(0.21). Through a series of sensitivity analyses, we show that the most important sources of systematic error are (1) systematic differences in the analysis of the z ≈ 0 and z ≫ 0 samples; (2) systematic effects associated with details of the photometric redshift calculation; and (3) uncertainties in the photometric calibration. With this in mind, we show that our results based on photometric redshifts are consistent with a completely independent analysis which does not require redshift information for individual galaxies. Our results suggest that, at most, 1/5 of local red sequence galaxies with M *>1011 M were already in place at z 2.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1171-1199
Number of pages29
JournalAstrophysical Journal
Volume694
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2009

Fingerprint

Chile
stellar mass
diagram
diagrams
galaxies
color
calibration
systematic errors
analysis
sensitivity
calculation
effect

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Astronomy and Astrophysics
  • Space and Planetary Science

Keywords

  • Galaxies: evolution
  • Galaxies: formation
  • Galaxies: high-redshift
  • Galaxies: luminosity function, mass function
  • Galaxies: stellar content

Cite this

Taylor, Edward N. ; Franx, Marijn ; G Van Dokkum, Pieter ; Bell, Eric F. ; Brammer, Gabriel B. ; Rudnick, Gregory ; Wuyts, Stijn ; Gawiser, Eric ; Lira, Paulina ; Urry, C. Megan ; Rix, Hans Walter. / The rise of massive red galaxies : The color-magnitude and color-stellar mass diagrams for z phot ≲ 2 from the multiwavelength survey by yale-chile. In: Astrophysical Journal. 2009 ; Vol. 694, No. 2. pp. 1171-1199.
@article{6244464812e34a42a5fbcaa3fd173480,
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abstract = "We present the color-magnitude and color-stellar mass diagrams for galaxies with z phot ≲ 2, based on a K (AB) < 22 catalog of the × □° Extended Chandra Deep Field South from the MUltiwavelength Survey by Yale-Chile. Our main sample of 7840 galaxies contains 1297 M *>1011 M ⊙ galaxies in the range 0.2 < z phot < 1.8. We show empirically that this catalog is approximately complete for M *>1011 M ⊙ galaxies for z phot < 1.8. For this mass-limited sample, we show that the locus of the red sequence color-stellar mass relation evolves as Δ(u - r) (-0.44 ± 0.02)z phot for z phot ≲ 1.2. For z phot ≳ 1.3, however, we are no longer able to reliably distinguish red and blue subpopulations from the observed color distribution; we show that this would require much deeper near-infrared data. At 1.5 < z phot < 1.8, the comoving number density of M *>1011 M ⊙ galaxies is 50{\%} of the local value, with a red fraction of 33{\%}. Making a parametric fit to the observed evolution, we find n tot(z) (1 + z phot)-0.520.12(0.20). We find stronger evolution in the red fraction: f red(z) (1 + z phot) -1.170.18(0.21). Through a series of sensitivity analyses, we show that the most important sources of systematic error are (1) systematic differences in the analysis of the z ≈ 0 and z ≫ 0 samples; (2) systematic effects associated with details of the photometric redshift calculation; and (3) uncertainties in the photometric calibration. With this in mind, we show that our results based on photometric redshifts are consistent with a completely independent analysis which does not require redshift information for individual galaxies. Our results suggest that, at most, 1/5 of local red sequence galaxies with M *>1011 M ⊙ were already in place at z 2.",
keywords = "Galaxies: evolution, Galaxies: formation, Galaxies: high-redshift, Galaxies: luminosity function, mass function, Galaxies: stellar content",
author = "Taylor, {Edward N.} and Marijn Franx and {G Van Dokkum}, Pieter and Bell, {Eric F.} and Brammer, {Gabriel B.} and Gregory Rudnick and Stijn Wuyts and Eric Gawiser and Paulina Lira and Urry, {C. Megan} and Rix, {Hans Walter}",
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Taylor, EN, Franx, M, G Van Dokkum, P, Bell, EF, Brammer, GB, Rudnick, G, Wuyts, S, Gawiser, E, Lira, P, Urry, CM & Rix, HW 2009, 'The rise of massive red galaxies: The color-magnitude and color-stellar mass diagrams for z phot ≲ 2 from the multiwavelength survey by yale-chile', Astrophysical Journal, vol. 694, no. 2, pp. 1171-1199. https://doi.org/10.1088/0004-637X/694/2/1171

The rise of massive red galaxies : The color-magnitude and color-stellar mass diagrams for z phot ≲ 2 from the multiwavelength survey by yale-chile. / Taylor, Edward N.; Franx, Marijn; G Van Dokkum, Pieter; Bell, Eric F.; Brammer, Gabriel B.; Rudnick, Gregory; Wuyts, Stijn; Gawiser, Eric; Lira, Paulina; Urry, C. Megan; Rix, Hans Walter.

In: Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 694, No. 2, 01.01.2009, p. 1171-1199.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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T1 - The rise of massive red galaxies

T2 - The color-magnitude and color-stellar mass diagrams for z phot ≲ 2 from the multiwavelength survey by yale-chile

AU - Taylor, Edward N.

AU - Franx, Marijn

AU - G Van Dokkum, Pieter

AU - Bell, Eric F.

AU - Brammer, Gabriel B.

AU - Rudnick, Gregory

AU - Wuyts, Stijn

AU - Gawiser, Eric

AU - Lira, Paulina

AU - Urry, C. Megan

AU - Rix, Hans Walter

PY - 2009/1/1

Y1 - 2009/1/1

N2 - We present the color-magnitude and color-stellar mass diagrams for galaxies with z phot ≲ 2, based on a K (AB) < 22 catalog of the × □° Extended Chandra Deep Field South from the MUltiwavelength Survey by Yale-Chile. Our main sample of 7840 galaxies contains 1297 M *>1011 M ⊙ galaxies in the range 0.2 < z phot < 1.8. We show empirically that this catalog is approximately complete for M *>1011 M ⊙ galaxies for z phot < 1.8. For this mass-limited sample, we show that the locus of the red sequence color-stellar mass relation evolves as Δ(u - r) (-0.44 ± 0.02)z phot for z phot ≲ 1.2. For z phot ≳ 1.3, however, we are no longer able to reliably distinguish red and blue subpopulations from the observed color distribution; we show that this would require much deeper near-infrared data. At 1.5 < z phot < 1.8, the comoving number density of M *>1011 M ⊙ galaxies is 50% of the local value, with a red fraction of 33%. Making a parametric fit to the observed evolution, we find n tot(z) (1 + z phot)-0.520.12(0.20). We find stronger evolution in the red fraction: f red(z) (1 + z phot) -1.170.18(0.21). Through a series of sensitivity analyses, we show that the most important sources of systematic error are (1) systematic differences in the analysis of the z ≈ 0 and z ≫ 0 samples; (2) systematic effects associated with details of the photometric redshift calculation; and (3) uncertainties in the photometric calibration. With this in mind, we show that our results based on photometric redshifts are consistent with a completely independent analysis which does not require redshift information for individual galaxies. Our results suggest that, at most, 1/5 of local red sequence galaxies with M *>1011 M ⊙ were already in place at z 2.

AB - We present the color-magnitude and color-stellar mass diagrams for galaxies with z phot ≲ 2, based on a K (AB) < 22 catalog of the × □° Extended Chandra Deep Field South from the MUltiwavelength Survey by Yale-Chile. Our main sample of 7840 galaxies contains 1297 M *>1011 M ⊙ galaxies in the range 0.2 < z phot < 1.8. We show empirically that this catalog is approximately complete for M *>1011 M ⊙ galaxies for z phot < 1.8. For this mass-limited sample, we show that the locus of the red sequence color-stellar mass relation evolves as Δ(u - r) (-0.44 ± 0.02)z phot for z phot ≲ 1.2. For z phot ≳ 1.3, however, we are no longer able to reliably distinguish red and blue subpopulations from the observed color distribution; we show that this would require much deeper near-infrared data. At 1.5 < z phot < 1.8, the comoving number density of M *>1011 M ⊙ galaxies is 50% of the local value, with a red fraction of 33%. Making a parametric fit to the observed evolution, we find n tot(z) (1 + z phot)-0.520.12(0.20). We find stronger evolution in the red fraction: f red(z) (1 + z phot) -1.170.18(0.21). Through a series of sensitivity analyses, we show that the most important sources of systematic error are (1) systematic differences in the analysis of the z ≈ 0 and z ≫ 0 samples; (2) systematic effects associated with details of the photometric redshift calculation; and (3) uncertainties in the photometric calibration. With this in mind, we show that our results based on photometric redshifts are consistent with a completely independent analysis which does not require redshift information for individual galaxies. Our results suggest that, at most, 1/5 of local red sequence galaxies with M *>1011 M ⊙ were already in place at z 2.

KW - Galaxies: evolution

KW - Galaxies: formation

KW - Galaxies: high-redshift

KW - Galaxies: luminosity function, mass function

KW - Galaxies: stellar content

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