Time-of-flight study of the ionic and neutral particles produced by pulsed-laser ablation of frozen glycerol

P. K. Wu, B. R. Ringeisen, D. M. Bubb, R. C.Y. Auyeung, J. Horwitz, E. J. Houser, A. Piqué, R. A. McGill, D. B. Chrisey

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10 Scopus citations


The emitted particles from pulsed-laser ablation (PLA), λ = 193 nm and fluence = 88-400 mJ/cm2, of frozen glycerol was examined using time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The data are analyzed using supersonic molecular-beam theory and the result is interpreted using a thermal/fluid-dynamic model. Both intact and fragmented glycerol are emitted in the PLA process at all fluences and their concentration ratio is fluence dependent. Fragmentation occurs predominantly at one of the C-C bonds forming CH2-OH (31 amu) and HO-CH2-CH-OH (61 amu). CH3 is produced at the target which requires the protonation of a CH2 fragment. At fluences higher than 250 mJ/cm2, ions are detected. These ions have very high velocity, >2000 m/s, and their intensity increases with fluences. PLA is thus not suitable for glycerol transfer under these conditions due to fragmentation. The data show that particle emission proceeds as a simple thermal vaporization process at fluences <200 mJ/cm2. Higher fluences will yield a Knudsen layer (KL), which is formed in front of the target surface. For fluences >300 mJ/cm2, particles from the KL go through unsteady adiabatic expansion prior to free flight. Models of particle and ion formation and interaction are proposed and discussed.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)3623-3631
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Applied Physics
Issue number7
StatePublished - Oct 1 2001
Externally publishedYes

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Physics and Astronomy(all)


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