Under pressure: Cellular and molecular responses during glaucoma, a common neurodegeneration with axonopathy

Robert W. Nickells, Gareth R. Howell, Ileana Soto, Simon W.M. John

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

194 Scopus citations

Abstract

Glaucoma is a complex neurodegenerative disorder that is expected to affect 80 million people by the end of this decade. Retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) are the most affected cell type and progressively degenerate over the course of the disease. RGC axons exit the eye and enter the optic nerve by passing through the optic nerve head (ONH). The ONH is an important site of initial damage in glaucoma. Higher intraocular pressure (IOP) is an important risk factor for glaucoma, but the molecular links between elevated IOP and axon damage in the ONH are poorly defined. In this review and focusing primarily on the ONH, we discuss recent studies that have contributed to understanding the etiology and pathogenesis of glaucoma. We also identify areas that require further investigation and focus on mechanisms identified in other neurodegenerations that may contribute to RGC dysfunction and demise in glaucoma.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)153-179
Number of pages27
JournalAnnual Review of Neuroscience
Volume35
DOIs
StatePublished - Jul 2012
Externally publishedYes

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Neuroscience(all)

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