Lipolysis is a critical metabolic pathway contributing to energy homeostasis through degradation of triacylglycerides stored in lipid droplets (LDs), releasing fatty acids. Neutral lipid lipases act at the oil/water interface. In mammalian cells, LD surfaces are coated with one or more members of the perilipin protein family, which serve important functions in regulating lipolysis. We investigated mechanisms by which three perilipin proteins control lipolysis by adipocyte triglyceride lipase (ATGL), a key lipase in adipocytes and non-adipose cells. Using a cell culture model, we examined interactions of ATGL and its co-lipase CGI-58 with perilipin 1 (perilipin A), perilipin 2 (adipose differentiation-related protein), and perilipin 5 (LSDP5) using multiple techniques as follows: anisotropy Forster resonance energy transfer, co-immunoprecipitation, [32P]orthophosphate radiolabeling, and measurement of lipolysis. The results show that ATGL interacts with CGI-58 and perilipin 5; the latter is selectively expressed in oxidative tissues. Both proteins independently recruited ATGL to the LD surface, but with opposite effects; interaction of ATGL with CGI-58 increased lipolysis, whereas interaction of ATGL with perilipin 5 decreased lipolysis. In contrast, neither perilipin 1 nor 2 interacted directly with ATGL. Activation of protein kinase A (PKA) increased [32P]orthophosphate incorporation into perilipin 5 by 2-fold, whereas neither ATGL nor CGI-58 was labeled under the incubation conditions. Cells expressing both ectopic perilipin 5 and ATGL showed a 3-fold increase in lipolysis following activation of PKA. Our studies establish perilipin 5 as a novel ATGL partner and provide evidence that the protein composition of perilipins at the LD surface regulates lipolytic activity of ATGL.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Molecular Biology
- Cell Biology